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Volume 2, Issue 4
October - December 2016


VIIRS Winds Go Operational at ECMWF

The impact of VIIRS polar winds at different forecast times (initial time plus N days) at ECMWF

The impact of VIIRS polar winds at different forecast times (initial time plus N days) at ECMWF
(click to enlarge)

The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) began using the NESDIS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) polar winds in their operational numerical weather forecast model on 11 August 2016. First guess departure statistics of the VIIRS winds by ECMWF found that the Root Mean Square Vector Difference (RMSVD) is generally lower than the similar European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT)-generated Metop Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) winds. Also, the VIIRS winds provide a small, positive impact in high-latitude forecasts.

The figure shows the impact of VIIRS polar winds at different forecast times (initial time plus N days) at ECMWF. The impact is shown by vertical level and latitude where blue shades indicate a positive impact. Data are based on seven months, summer and winter. Contributors: D. Santek, CIMSS; J. Key, STAR/ASPB; S. Wanzong, CIMSS.

Tracking Hurricane Matthew With VIIRS Imagery

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared image of Category 4 Hurricane Matthew over the Bahamas on 10/6/2016

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared image of Category 4 Hurricane Matthew over the Bahamas on 10/6/2016
(click to enlarge)

The CIMSS Tropical Cyclone webpage, which provides unique satellite-derived atmospheric analysis products in and around the hurricane to the NOAA/National Hurricane Center, NOAA/NESDIS/Satellite Analysis Branch, and many other interests around the world, had an average of almost 13.5TB of data transferred to 500,000 unique IP address each day between October 3-7, inclusive. On October 5, 2016, the Tropical Cyclone web server was averaging 185 requests/second and between 2000-2500 simultaneous connections throughout the day. The CIMSS Satellite Blog, which provides unique and educational analysis and discussion of satellite-based events around the globe, averaged over 21K unique site views and 600GB of data transferred during the same period of Hurricane Matthew. These two CIMSS sites continue to be some of the most critical sites for meteorologists to visit during high-impact tropical cyclone events, providing important data analysis and products for US operational forecast centers as well as thought-provoking interpretation of highlighted items of interest during these events. CIRA recorded 68,515 page views for the period of 28th September through 8th of October. These satellite blogs can be found at:

 

VIIRS Day-Night Band Imagery depicting power outages caused by Hurricane Matthew

Significant power outage impact due to Hurricane Matthew is shown for the Southeast US Coast

Significant power outage impact due to Hurricane Matthew is shown for the Southeast US Coast
(click to enlarge)

Steve Miller from CIRA generated RGB comparisons of before and after Hurricane Matthew passed the Eastern US (28 September versus 10 October) to highlight the power outage impact. These images showed that the Florida East/Central Coast showed minimal power outage impact, while the Southeast US Coast experienced a significant impact.

Significant power outage impact due to Hurricane Matthew is shown in the figure at right for the Southeast US Coast. DNB imagery from 28 September, before Hurricane Matthew (left), and from 10 October, after Hurricane Matthew (center). The right figure is a difference plot of the left and center figure with: Gold = no change, Red = possible outages, Green = "new" lights. Contributor: S. Miller.

Rare Photo Captures Sprites and Gravity Waves over Hurricane Matthew

Photograph taken by Franki Lucena showing the sky above Hurricane Matthew on 10/1/2016 at 0656 UTC

Photograph taken by Franki Lucena showing the sky above Hurricane Matthew on 10/1/2016 at 0656 UTC
(click to enlarge)

The VIIRS DNB satellite image from 1 October 2016 at 0651 UTC

The VIIRS DNB satellite image from 1 October 2016 at 0651 UTC
(click to enlarge)

At the time of the photograph, Matthew was offshore of Venezuela/Columbia, and far below the horizon from the vantage point of Puerto Rico. The sprites, which occur in the mesosphere (50-90 km) appear as bright pink, vertically oriented 'tentacle- like' structures in the original photo, can occur in response to powerful lightning flashes of positive polarity atop thunderstorms. Typically observed over continental storms, these sprites are indicative of powerful convection in Hurricane Matthew's rain bands. An enhanced version of the photograph reveals additional horizontal banded structures above the level of the sprites. These are perturbations of the nightglow layer (85- 95 km) caused by upwelling atmospheric gravity wave disturbances. Such gravity waves can be launched by a number of mechanisms, including strong convection. In this case, the most likely source is the same as that of the sprites--Hurricane Matthew. As luck would have it, within a few minutes of Frankie Lucena's photograph, the Suomi NPP satellite crossed over the region (1 October 2016 at 0651 UTC, vs. the photo time of 0656 UTC).

The photograph at right, taken by Franki Lucena showing the sky above Hurricane Matthew on Saturday, 1 October 2016 at 0656 UTC, captured rare red bursts of light, called sprites, as well as faint gravity waves in the sky above it. The photo was posted on Huffington Post.

On this evening the moon was not above the horizon, and the VIIRS Day/Night Band Imagery was able to capture the nightglow emissions from these waves. The second figure at right shows the Day/Night Band view of the region, including the concentrically oriented waves emanating from Hurricane Matthew, as well as flashes from lightning which may in fact be associated directly with the sprites observed. The VIIRS Day/Night Band provides unprecedented information on atmospheric composition and dynamics that are simply impossible to observe from conventional imaging radiometers.

The VIIRS DNB satellite image from 1 October 2016 at 0651 UTC shows the photographer's location (top right) as well as the site of the gravity waves, lightning flashes and the eye of Hurricane Matthew. This figure was composed by Steve Miller (CIRA). The full story can be found at Huffington Post.

 

Evaluation of Cold Air Aloft Products

AWIPS-II display of NUCAPS retrievals used in monitoring cold air aloft.<br>Left: 400 hPa temperature, Right: Vertical cross section of temperature along line shown in left panel

AWIPS-II display of NUCAPS retrievals used in monitoring cold air aloft.
Left: 400 hPa temperature, Right: Vertical cross section of temperature along line shown in left panel
(click to enlarge)

Loop options for web-based cold air aloft products

Loop options for web-based cold air aloft products
(click to enlarge)

At high latitudes during the winter months, the air temperature at altitudes used by passenger and cargo aircraft can become cold enough (-65°C) such that the jet fuel can begin to freeze, an obvious flying hazard. In a collaborative effort among SPoRT, CIRA, CIMSS, GINA, and the NWS in Alaska, two avenues for displaying satellite analysis of regions of cold air aloft have been developed. The first avenue, primarily developed at SPoRT and CIMSS, delivers data from NUCAPS retrievals via AWIPS-II in plan view and cross section options (Figure 6).

Web page loops, primarily developed at CIRA, constitute the second avenue. There is both an "Arctic Overview" and a "Bering Sea" loop available. Additionally, data from MIRS retrievals from the ATMS and AMSU instruments, as well as GFS analyses, are also available on the web page. Information on the product was recently added as the loops display the temperature retrieval information in a rather non-traditional way.

6 December marked the beginning of the 2016-2017 cold season evaluation period of the NUCAPS retrievals' ability to monitor regions of cold air aloft. Forecasters at the Anchorage Center Weather Service Unit were asked to fill out an online form when the NUCAPS products are used. The feedback will be used to assess NUCAPS' performance and guide the project team to changes which would improve the products. Team: J. Dostalek and K. Micke, CIRA.

Improved 3-D Satellite Data for Warm Core Hurricanes

left to right: Traditional algorithm, new algorithm, and ECMWF analysis<br>for Hurricane Sandy on 2012 October 28 at 0600 UTC(top row)<br>and 1800 UTC (bottom)

left to right: Traditional algorithm, new algorithm, and ECMWF analysis
for Hurricane Sandy on 2012 October 28 at 0600 UTC(top row)
and 1800 UTC (bottom)
(click to enlarge)

CICS-MD Scientists Xiaolei Zou and Xiaoxu Tian have an article in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres that analyzes satellite data on warm-core hurricanes. The study focused on Hurricane Sandy data from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Zou and Tian developed a new retrieval algorithm that was able to reveal the 3-D warm core structures of hurricanes. Their analysis of Sandy found that the warm core was confined to the upper troposphere while the hurricane intensified in the tropics and then extended to the entire troposphere when it reached the mid-latitudes.

Their analysis shows (see figure) that the new approach is more accurate for anomaly temperature than the traditional algorithm and much more comparable to ECMWF interim analysis for Hurricane Sandy. The retrieved warm core features are more realistic when compared with those from the operational Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS).
Detailed caption: analysis shows the new algorithm (Revised—center) is more accurate for anomaly temperature than the traditional algorithm (left) and much more comparable to ECMWF interim analysis (right) for Hurricane Sandy on 2012 October 28 at 0600 UTC (top row) and 1800 UTC (bottom row). Tian X. and X. Zou, 2016: ATMS and AMSU-A derived hurricane warm core structures using a modified retrieval algorithm. Tian, X., and X. Zou (2016), ATMS- and AMSU-A-derived hurricane warm core structures using a modified retrieval algorithm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 12,630–12,646, doi:10.1002/2016JD025042.
Contributors: Xiaolei Zou and Xiaoxu Tian.

Modeling Volcanic Ash Transport From Satellite Data

Ash cloud top heights on a latitude/longitude grid: (a) HYSPLIT<br>modeled cloud height and (b) passive infrared satellite retrieval of<br>cloud height

Ash cloud top heights on a latitude/longitude grid: (a) HYSPLIT
modeled cloud height and (b) passive infrared satellite retrieval of
cloud height
(click to enlarge)

Using satellite retrievals of mass loading to determine the mass of fine ash in the ash cloud can decrease uncertainty in the long- term forecast of a transport and dispersion model. NOAA scientists published an article in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres about how satellite measurements of volcanic ash cloud properties may be used by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) transport and dispersion model to improve forecasts of volcanic ash for aviation. Validation showed that the model output, MODIS retrievals of cloud top height, and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) measurements showed good agreement. The HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model was able to predict the height and thickness of ash clouds reasonably well and was able to resolve multiple thin ash layers.

Figure at right: ash cloud top heights on a latitude/longitude grid: (a) HYSPLIT modeled cloud height and (b) passive infrared satellite retrieval of cloud height. Measurements and model output all suggest that the ash cloud develops into a complex 3-D structure. Crawford, A. M., B. J. B. Stunder, F. Ngan, and M. J. Pavolonis (2016), Initializing HYSPLIT with satellite observations of volcanic ash: A case study of the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 10,786–10,803, doi:10.1002/2016JD024779.
Contributor: Mike Pavolonis.

Precipitation Super-Ensembles

Anomaly forecast correlation for the indicated month for the final super ensemble model. Correlations above 0.4 are statistically significant at the 95% level.

Anomaly forecast correlation for the indicated month for the final super ensemble model. Correlations above 0.4 are statistically significant at the 95% level.
(click to enlarge)

Thomas Smith and Ralph Ferraro from the Satellite Climate Studies Branch published a paper on statistical forecasting of monthly precipitation in the Journal of Hydrometeorology (17, 2699-2711, 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0018.1). The article showed potential improvements in monthly forecasting of US-area precipitation from both improved methods and the use of additional predictor data. Methods are improved by further development of the ensemble statistical forecast method to use both canonical correlation analysis and joint empirical orthogonal function models to compute members of the ensemble. Additional data used include precipitation over oceanic regions, which is available from satellite estimates. Figure at right shows the anomaly forecast correlation each month when ocean precipitation is added–correlations above 0.4 are statistically significant at the 95% level.

Cross-validation testing shows that both noticeably improve forecast skill. The cross-validation skill of the best ensemble- statistical forecast is on average comparable to skill from the most advanced numerical forecast system, although the high-skill regions tend to be different. That suggests that combining the statistical and numerical forecasts could produce a forecast superior to either in isolation. Smith, T.M., S.S.P. Shen, and R.R. Ferraro, 2016: Super-ensemble statistical forecasting of monthly precipitation over the contiguous US, with improvements from ocean-area precipitation predictors. J. Hydromet., 17, 2699-2711.
Contributors Tom Smith and Ralph Ferraro

New VIIRS Imagery Product on RAMSDIS Online

Example VIIRS Day/Night Snow/Cloud Discriminator image of Alaska (22:55 UTC 5 December 2016) The dotted line indicates the location of the terminator, which is now present during all "daytime" overpasses as we approach Winter Solstice.

Example VIIRS Day/Night Snow/Cloud Discriminator image of Alaska (22:55 UTC 5 December 2016) The dotted line indicates the location of the terminator, which is now present during all "daytime" overpasses as we approach Winter Solstice.
(click to enlarge)

A new VIIRS-based imagery product has been added to CIRA's RAMSDIS Online website. The "Day/Night Snow/Cloud Discriminator" combines information from 11 VIIRS bands to discriminate clouds from snow and ice. Previously, a daytime-only version of the Snow/Cloud Discriminator was available. Later, a nighttime-only version that included information from the Day/Night Band was developed. The new product blends both of these products together at the terminator, creating a Snow/Cloud Discriminator that works both day and night. Most imagery products that discriminate clouds from snow (e.g. Natural Color RGB, Snow RGB, etc.) only work during the daytime. This product is now being produced in near-real time over the Alaska Region. The product is designed to highlight snow and ice as white and distinguish low clouds in yellow, mid-level clouds in orange and high clouds in magenta. An example image is shown in the figure below. View near-real time images. Contributors: C. Seaman, S. Miller, D. Watson and K. Micke, CIRA.

New Himawari Imagery Products on RAMSDIS Online

Example Himawari-8 Geocolor image of Southeast Asia at sunrise (00:50 UTC 7 December 2016). Geocolor combines<br>True Color imagery during the day (right-side) with a low-cloud detection product at night (upper-left corner).

Example Himawari-8 Geocolor image of Southeast Asia at sunrise (00:50 UTC 7 December 2016). Geocolor combines
True Color imagery during the day (right-side) with a low-cloud detection product at night (upper-left corner).
(click to enlarge)

Several new Himawari imagery products have been added to RAMSDIS Online. These include:

An example image is shown in at right. Contributors: C. Seaman and K. Micke, CIRA.

 

Dr. Brad Pierce Receives the Prestigious NOAA Administrators Award

Dr. Brad Pierce with the 2016 NOAA Administrators award in Silver Spring, MD

Dr. Brad Pierce with the 2016 NOAA Administrators award in Silver Spring, MD
(click to enlarge)

Dr. Brad Pierce from the Advanced Satellite Products Branch receives the prestigious 2016 NOAA Administrators award at a ceremony that was held on 15 November 2016 in Silver Spring, MD. He received the award "For providing robust, real- time, simulated data of next generation geostationary satellite images, reducing risk in post-launch operations".

CIRA Scientist Wins Prestigious Award

David I. McLean (right) congratulates Steve Miller (left) for winning the 2016 College of Engineering: Outstanding Administrative Professional Researcher award

David I. McLean (right) congratulates Steve Miller (left) for winning the 2016 College of Engineering: Outstanding Administrative Professional Researcher award
(click to enlarge)

Steve Miller, CIRA Senior Research Scientist and Deputy Director, received the 2016 Colorado State University (CSU) College of Engineering Faculty and Staff Award in the category of "Outstanding Administrative Professional Researcher." The award was presented by David McLean, Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering to Steve Miller "...for his outstanding leadership skills and scientific contributions...he is leading the way in next-generation satellite remote sensing systems, with a focus on low-light sensing of the nocturnal environment". The award ceremony was held on CSU's main campus on November 10th.

Satellite Foundational Course for GOES-R Live in NWS LMS

The Satellite Foundational Course for GOES-R is now live in the Department of Commerce Learning Center. Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and Advanced Satellite Products Branch (ASPB) scientists contributed directly to 11 of the nearly 40 modules that comprise the training that is mandatory for all National Weather Service forecasters, including introductory material ("Basic Operations of GOES-R Satellites", "Multi-Channel Interpretation Approaches"), information on GOES-R Baseline Products ("Aerosols", "Clouds and Microphysics", "Legacy Atmospheric Profiles", "Derived Motion Winds", "Volcanic Ash", "Fire Characterization and Land Surface Characteristics"), and training on Synoptic Scale Features ("Fog/Low Clouds Formation and Dissipation", "TROWALS", "Cyclogenesis: Potential Vorticity Concepts") as viewed with satellite data. The scientists were also Subject Matter Experts (SME) on a number of other modules.
Contributor: Tim Schmit.

CEOS Water Constellation Feasibility Study

CEOS Water Constellation Feasibility Study

CEOS Water Constellation Feasibility Study
(click to enlarge)

STAR scientists R. Ferraro, R. Kuligowski (SMCD) and X. Zhan (SMCD) had significant contributions to the newly released CEOS Water Constellation Feasibility Study. This report was prepared by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) Water Strategy Implementation Study Team (WSIST) to provide a response to the Group on Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy; Chu Ishida of JAXA led the activity. In particular, this report partially responded to the CEOS Virtual Water Constellation (GEOSS Water Strategy recommendation C.1):

"The feasibility of developing a Water-Train satellite constellation should be assessed. This suite of satellites would be modelled after the A-Train, providing a space segment of an observation system that would capture all fluxes and stores of the water cycle using a diverse suite of platforms and instruments. This system would operate as a Virtual Water Cycle Constellation."

WSIST agreed to focus on six high-priority variables associated with the water cycle: precipitation, soil moisture, evaporation/evapotranspiration, river discharge, surface water storage, and ground water. WSIST carried out a gap analysis of individual observation systems for the parameters and their combined observation system. The goal of the FS is to address all six parameters and optimize the integrated observation system. Given the complexity of assessing the interactions between all six variables, WSIST proposed a step-wise approach at the SIT-30 meeting held in Frascati, Italy on April 18, 2016. Based on this proposal, members agreed that WSIST would start with the precipitation-soil moisture case study and then expand to other variables.

International Weather Briefing

An example of natural-color RGB imagery from Terra-MODIS (left) and a natural-color RGB image from SNPP-VIIRS (right)

An example of natural-color RGB imagery from Terra-MODIS (left) and a natural-color RGB image from SNPP-VIIRS (right)
(click to enlarge)

GOES-13 Imagery from the 29 September 2016 Regional Focus Group session reflecting the story of Hurricane Matthew

GOES-13 Imagery from the 29 September 2016 Regional Focus Group session reflecting the story of Hurricane Matthew
(click to enlarge)

The WMO Virtual Laboratory Regional Focus Group of the Americas and Caribbean conducts bilingual (English/Spanish) monthly weather briefings. Six sessions have been conducted over the past 6 months (26 May, 23 June, 28 July, 25 August, 29 September, and 25 October). The briefings make use of VISITview software to present GOES and POES satellite imagery from CIRA and GoToWebinar for image and voice communication over the Internet. There were participants from the U.S.: CIRA, the NWS International Desk at WPC, UCAR/International Activities-NWS/NOAA, NWS Training Center, and COMET, as well as 232 session participants from 27 countries outside the U.S. (Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Cayman, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Germany, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Netherlands, Panamá, Peru, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and United Kingdom).

Mike Davison at the WPC International Desk leads the discussions, which highlight recent significant weather events, provide an update on climate diagnostics for the regions (sea surface temperatures and anomalies and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) velocity potential anomalies), and review current weather patterns and forecasts. The May session was held in conjunction with the Community for the Advancement of Learning in Meteorology (CALMet) 2016 Online conference and a WMO Train the Trainer Online Course, and included participants from outside our normal hemisphere reach for WMO Regions III and IV. These training sessions provide an opportunity to highlight imagery and products from new satellites, such as the RGB imagery (MODIS and VIIRS at right) which was shows during the July 2016 session. Hurricane Matthew imagery was briefed during the September session and a Haiti participant provided a brief summary of impacts in October. Recordings are available online for these and previous sessions and special seminars. The next international briefing will occur 15 November 2016. Contributor: B. Connell, CIRA.

Hurricane Matthew figure shows: a) the synoptic pattern, b) "feeder" bands continuing to influence the islands, c) the circulation, and d) potential influence of the trough on the future path of Matthew.

 

Tim Schmit Interviewed on WISN-TV (Milwaukee, Wisconsin)

Tim Schmit on ABC WISN-TV describing the benefits of GOES-16 on 30 November 2016

Tim Schmit on ABC WISN-TV describing the benefits of GOES-16 on 30 November 2016
(click to enlarge)

Tim Schmit from the Advanced Satellite Products Branch (ASPB) was interviewed by WISN-TV (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) about Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R, now GOES-16). The segment covered the improved capabilities of GOES-16. It aired on November 30 at 6 and 10pm.

Scott Rudlosky Interviewed on NBC4 Interview on GOES-R GLM

Scott Rudlosky on NBC 4

Scott Rudlosky on NBC 4
(click to enlarge)

Scott Rudlosky from the Satellite Climate Studies Branch (SCSB) was interviewed by NBC4 regarding the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Washington D.C. Lightning Mapping Array (DCLMA). The NBC4 segment on GOES-R was aired on 18 November 2016.

International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG)

Participants at the 8th IPWG and 5th IWSSM Joint Workshop in Bologna, Italy

Participants at the 8th IPWG and 5th IWSSM Joint Workshop in Bologna, Italy
(click to enlarge)

SCSB (R. Ferraro, H. Meng) and CICS-MD (C. Grassotti, N-Y. Wang) were well represented at the recently completed 8th Workshop of the IPWG which was held in Bologna, Italy (October 3-7). The STAR contingent delivered both oral and poster presentations, as well as served on the organizing committee, organized a training event, chaired sessions, participated in working groups and judged young scientist posters at the workshop. This year, the 5th International Workshop on Space-based Snowfall Measurements (IWSSM) was held concurrently with IPWG. Additional highlights include:

  • Over 150 participants from approximately 20 nations/organizations, including NOAA, NASA, EUMETSAT, ESA, JAXA, JMA, UKMO, ECMWF, ISRO, IMD;
  • A three-day training event was held on various aspects of precipitation retrieval from space; 30 young researchers from all over the world participated;
  • Working Groups developed several CGMS level recommendations on the topics of Applications, Research, Validation, Data Assimilation and Radiative Transfer

Details of the meeting can be found at the ISAC website. The next IPWG will be held in 2018, either in the U.S or in South Korea.

 
image: tag cloud of research-related words 

Boori, M. S., Ferraro, R. R., Choudhary, K., & Kupriyanov, A. (2016). Use of AMSR-E Microwave Satellite Data for Land Surface Characteristics and Snow Cover Variation. Data in Brief, 9, 1077-1089. [10.1016/j.dib.2016.11.006]

Gallo, K., & Xian, G. (2016). Changes in Satellite-Derived Impervious Surface Area at US Historical Climatology Network Stations. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 120, 77-83. [10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2016.08.006]

Gao, L., Li, J., Chen, L., Zhang, L. Y., & Heidinger, A. K. (2016). Retrieval and Validation of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth from AVHRR over China. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 54(11), 6280-6291. [10.1109/tgrs.2016.2574756]

Miller, S. D., Schmit, T. L., Seaman, C. J., Lindsey, D. T., Gunshor, M. M., Kohrs, R. A., Sumida, Y., & Hillger, D. (2016). A Sight for Sore Eyes the Return of True Color to Geostationary Satellites. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(10), 1803-1816. [10.1175/bams-d-15-00154.1]

Rivoire, L., Birner, T., & Knaff, J. A. (2016). Evolution of the Upper-Level Thermal Structure in Tropical Cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(19), 10530-10537. [10.1002/2016gl070622]

Sampson, C. R., Hansen, J. A., Wittmann, P. A., Knaff, J. A., & Schumacher, A. (2016). Wave Probabilities Consistent with Official Tropical Cyclone Forecasts. Weather and Forecasting, 31(6), 2035-2045. [10.1175/WAF-D-15-0093.1]

Schmit, T. J., Griffith, P., Gunshor, M. M., Daniels, J. M., Goodman, S. J., & Lebair, W. J. (2016). A Closer Look at the ABI on the GOES-R Series. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. [10.1175/bams-d-15-00230.1]

Smith, T. M. (2016). Reconstructions Improvements Using Iteratively Adjusted Statistics, Demonstrated Using Model-Output Annual SST Anomalies and Historical Sampling. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 33(11), 2289-2303. [10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0059.1]

Smith, T. M., Shen, S. S. P., & Ferraro, R. R. (2016). Superensemble Statistical Forecasting of Monthly Precipitation over the Contiguous United States, with Improvements from Ocean-Area Precipitation Predictors. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17(10), 2699-2711. [10.1175/jhm-d-16-0018.1]

Song, S., Schmidt, K. S., Pilewskie, P., King, M. D., Heidinger, A. K., Walther, A., Iwabuchi, H., Wind, G., & Coddington, O. M. (2016). The Spectral Signature of Cloud Spatial Structure in Shortwave Irradiance. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(21), 13791-13806. [10.5194/acp-16-13791-2016]

Wu, T. C., Zupanski, M., Grasso, L. D., Brown, P. J., Kummerow, C. D., & Knaff, J. A. (2016). The GSI Capability to Assimilate TRMM and GPM Hydrometeor Retrievals in HWRF. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(700), 2768-2787. [10.1002/gj.2867]

 

Data, algorithms, and images presented on STAR websites are intended for experimental use only and are not supported on an operational basis.  More information

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